Your Quick Guide in Quran Tajweed rules main 9 categories

Quran tajweed rules

Quran tajweed rules are essential for proper Quranic recitation, ensuring correct pronunciation and intonation.

 This is a set of rules governing the recitation of the Quran in a precise and melodious manner. Quran tajweed rules cover proper pronunciation, elongation, and other aspects of Quranic recitation.

Reading Quran for Muslims is worship and supplication, so we must read it as it was revealed to Muhammed PBUH, even Arabs have to learn how to read the Quran correctly according to Quran tajweed rules

 

What are the rules of tajweed in Arabic Quran?

Allah said in surat al qiyamah in verses 18 and 19

It is certainly upon Us to make you memorize and recite it(18), 

So once We have recited a revelation through Gabriel, follow its recitation ˹ closely(19).

Here Allah explained to his prophet that he has to recite the Quran as it was revealed, so this is what we should do as we are the followers of Muhammad PBUH.

quran tajweed rules regulate our recitation to be as what was reported by our beloved prophet pbuh.

Now we will explore quran tajweed rules  together.

 

quran tajweed rules in english

Makharij al-Huruf 

This is one of the Quran rules of tajweed,  it refers to the points of articulation of each Arabic letter, specifying where the sound originates in the mouth, throat, or nasal cavity when pronouncing a particular letter. These precise points of articulation are crucial in Tajweed to ensure the accurate pronunciation of letters.

Here are the main categories of Makharij al-Huruf:

 

1–Throat (Halaq):

 

Letters: ح (Ha), خ (Kha), ع (Ayn), غ (Ghain), همزة (hamza), and هاء (ha’) .

Those are the letters that are pronounced from different points of the throat.

 

2-Tongue (Lisan):

 

Letters: ق (Qaf), ك (Kaf), ج (Jim), ش (Sheen), ي (Ya)

Sounds produced by different parts of the tongue against the mouth or palate.

 

3-Palate (Jawf):

 

Letter: ء (Hamzah)

A glottal stop made by briefly closing the throat.

4-Inner side of the tongue:

 

Letter: ص (Sad), ض (Dad)

Sounds produced by the inner part of the tongue against the upper molars.

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5-Edges of the tongue:

 

Letters: ط (Ta), ظ (Dha), ل (Lam), ن (Nun), ر (Ra)

Sounds produced by the sides or edges of the tongue against the upper side teeth and the alveolar ridge.

 

6-Lips (Shafatain):

 

Letters: ب (Ba), م (Meem), و (Waw), ف (Fa), و (Wa)

Sounds produced by the lips coming together or approaching each other

 

7-Nasal Passage (Khayshoom): 

Letters like “ن” (noon) and “م” (meem) involve nasality.

Letters characteristics(Sifaat al hurouf)

These Quran tajweed rules are mainly related to the weight of the letters in the mouth, heavy or light. In two processes which are called Tafkheem, and Tarqeeq.

Tafkheem(heaviness)

Tafkhīm refers to the characteristic of “heaviness” in the pronunciation of certain Arabic letters. When a letter is pronounced with tafkhīm, it means that the sound is produced with emphasis and fullness.

Tarqeeq(lightness)

Tarqīq is the characteristic of “lightness” in the pronunciation of certain Arabic letters. When a letter is pronounced with tarqīq, it means that the sound is produced lightly and softly.

 Now we will classify the letters according to Tarqeeq and Tafkheem.

Tafkheem letters

These letters are always heavy, and they are seven letters:

Kha (خ), sad (ص), dad (ض), ghan (غ), ta (ط), qaff(ق), tha(ظ).

Letters could be tafkheem or tarqeeq

These letters may be found in tafkheem or tarqeeq

And they are three letters, Lam (ل) in Allah (الله), The prolonged alif (ا), and ra (ر).

Tarqeeq letters

All the remaining. Letters are tarqqeq letters.

 

Ghunnah

Ghunnah is one of the fundamental Quran tajweed rules. that involves producing a nasal sound during the pronunciation of certain Arabic letters. The term “ghunnah” refers to the nasal resonance created by closing the oral cavity and allowing air to pass through the nasal passages.

 

Ghunnah ranks or types:

1-The most strong

This happens in two cases

1-Noon (ن), and meem (م) with shaddah ّ

Ex فَامْتَحِنُوهُنَّ

2-merging with ghunnah, and this happens when noon sakinnah ن ْ

  Or tanween ً, came before the gourmet letters ya’  (ي), noon (ن), meem ( م), Waw (و).

Ex فَمَن یَعۡمَلۡ مِثۡقَالَ ذَرَّةٍ خَیۡرࣰا یَرَهُۥ

2-strong ghunnah

This happen when noon sakinah نْ, and meem sakinah مْ are followed with the letters of ikhfa’

Ex تَرْمِيهِم بِحِجَارَةٍ مِّن سِجِّيلٍ

3-incomplete ghunnah

This happens when meem sakinah, and noon sakinah are followed with one of idhaar letters

Ex وَأَرْسَلَ عَلَيْهِمْ طَيْرًا أَبَابِيلَ

4-the shortest ghunnah

Noon and meem motaharika, that means noon and meem with vowels.

Qalqalah

This rule is associated with certain letters when it comes with sukoon, these letters are قْ qaf, طْ Ta, بْ ba, جْ ja, and دْ da.

Qalqalah is a bouncing or vibrating sound when pronounced in those letters.

Izhar( clarification)

This rule is related to the rules of Noon sakinah, here if noon sakinah and tanween came before the 6 letters of izhar they will be pronounced Claire.

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The 6 letters of Izhar

Those letters came after noon sakinah and tanween to make clarify their pronouncing and they are:

Hamzah ء

Ha’ ه

Ayn ع 

Ghayn غ

Haa ح

Khaa خ

Ikhfaa( concealing)

This rule is also related to noon sakinah and tanween, when the letters of ikhfaa came after noon sakinah or tanween it will modify their pronouncing neither izhar or idgham

The letters of ikhfaa

They are fifteen letters 

Sad ص, dad ض , ta ط , tha ظ, seen س , sheen ش, dal د , thal ذ, ta ت, ta ث, za ز, fa ف, qaf ق, kaf ك, and geem ج.

Idgham( merging)

 Another noon sakinah and tanween rule, here if noon sakinah or tanween came before one of the six letters of idgham.  It won’t be pronounced as noon, but it will be mixed with the second letter to form a new sound between both letters.

Idgham letters

They are six letters 

Ya ي, ra ر, ma م , la ل, wow و , noon ن.

 

Maad(prolongation) 

Maad refers to the elongation or the lengthening of specific Arabic vowels in the Quranic recitation. There are several rules related to “Maad” based on the vowels involved and their duration:

 

Madd Al-Asli (مد الأصلي):

This is the natural elongation and occurs on certain letters when accompanied by a specific vowel (Alif, Ya, or Waw) with a sukoon. The elongation is approximately two counts (harakat).

 

Madd Al-Far’i (مد الفرعي):

This elongation is due to a vowel that occurs within a word, often represented by Alif, Ya, or Waw. It is a medium elongation, approximately four counts (harakat).

 

Madd Al-Munfasil (مد المنفصل):

This elongation occurs when the letters Alif, Waw, or Ya appear with a sukoon at the end of a word, requiring a long pause. The elongation is approximately six counts (harakat).

 

Madd Al-Leen (مد اللين):

It involves a soft, gentle elongation of a non-natural vowel (Alif, Waw, or Ya) followed by a specific letter (usually a Hamzah or Meem).

 

Meem sakinah rules

Idgham shafawi: 

When the non-vowel meem is followed by vowel meem, it becomes one stressed meem.

Ex  جَزَاؤُهُم مَّغْفِرَةٌ

Ikhfaa shawfawi

When non-vowel meem is followed by the letter baa, this will result in a light meem sound with ghunah and opening lips to pronounce baa.

Ex تَرْمِيهِمْ بِحِجَارَةٍ

Izhar shafawi

With the rest Arabic letter baa will be pronounced as it is





Related questions

What are the major tajweed rules

There are plenty of rules but there are main sections of tajweed and they are:

Makharig al huroof, siffat al hurouf, ghunnah, idgham, idhar, qalqalah, meem sakinah rules, noon sakinnah rules, madd, and stopping rules.

Can I read Quran without Tajweed?

Yes, you can read the Quran without implementing Tajweed, but Tajweed is highly encouraged and considered important for proper and accurate recitation.

While it’s permissible to read the Quran without Tajweed, learning tajweed can enhance your understanding of the text and help you recite it in a manner that is true to the original revelation. Many Muslims choose to learn Tajweed to honor the sanctity of the Quran and improve their recitation.

 

How many tajweed rules are there in the Quran

There are no certain number of tajweed rules, but we can categorize it into 10 main categories.

 

Summary

Quran tajweed rules are the rules that guarantee the precise, and accurate pronouncing of the quran.

Understanding the Quran depends upon the right pronunciation of the letters and words, and due to the special language of the quran, the rules that organize its reading are of a special place in Quranic sciences.

 There are many tajweed rules of the quran, and we summarized them in main 9 categorizes makharig, siffat, ghunnah, qalqalah, idgham, ikhfaa, izhar, mad, and meem sakinah.